History: E316_TR_Paper_Fall_11

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Due Dates. The final draft will be due as specified at the bottom of the syllabus page. I require emailed attachments in MS Word (or "inline" only if necessary) because it's easier to comment on drafts and maintain records. A one-paragraph topic/argument description will be due by email on the date the syllabus page specifies. See the syllabus for the paper requirement's value as a percentage of the course grade.

Key Guides: MLA Format, Grammar, Deductive Essays, Citing Texts, Analyzing Texts, and Editing Tips.

General Prompt. Choose one or two assigned texts and, focusing on issues you find relevant and manageable, write a 5-7 page essay specific in its initial thesis, easy to follow in structure, and clear and consistent in style. (Graduates, if any are enrolled in this class, should write a 10-15 page essay that engages with both primary and secondary material.)

Developing a Topic: You may want to develop a paper topic by refining or adapting one of the study questions on our authors. If so, send me the question or questions that interest you, and I will gladly help you "spin" a good topic. But here are some you may find worthwhile:

1. Shakespeare's clowns, fools, rustics, malapropists, minor rogues and madcaps are some of his most beloved characters. In one assigned play, examine the significance of such a character's words and actions to the play's weightier characters and themes. Consider that character's strengths and limitations and his or her value with respect to our understanding of other, more central, characters in the play.

2. Shakespeare's plays seldom reduce neatly to pure comedy or tragedy -- there is usually something or someone melancholy in his comedies, and something or someone comic in his tragedies and romances. Consider one or two such "contrary" scenes or characters in one assigned play, and explore how they might enhance an audience's understanding of characters and events that suit the play's predominant mode.

3. Shakespeare's natural settings cover the full spectrum from magical green worlds and idyllic pastoral habitats to raging tempests and the bleakest landscapes. In one assigned play, examine the significance of the natural surroundings, taking care to reflect upon the relationships (involving alienation, affinity, destructiveness, regeneration, metaphorical significance, etc.) between key characters and the landscapes/elements in which they speak and act. Consider, too, where relevant, the extent to which the play grants the natural environment integrity and prerogatives of its own, aside from its value to human beings.

4. In the comedies and romance plays especially, courtship and marriage are often central issues. In any one assigned play, consider the development of one couple's courtship: examine the obstacles they face, the qualities that make them a match, and the significance of conversation (dialog) in the maturing of their affection for and understanding of each other. Consider also any accidents or external forces that may bring them together, and reflect on the degree to which the couple themselves can control what happens to them.

5. Warfare and political action are central to Shakespeare's history plays, but they often matter in his other dramas, too. War can be represented in terms of chivalry and glory or brute violence, just as political action can be characterized as honorable and responsible or cunning and evil. Examine one assigned play that represents war and/or politics, considering whether the positive or negative view (or something in between) prevails, what is revealed about key characters in the cauldron of war or politics, and the extent to which the play treats either area as "theater" or stagecraft.

6. Ghosts, the supernatural, intimations, and dream-states (or dream-worlds) figure in a number of Shakespeare's plays. Focus on the relevant super-ordinary aspect in one such assigned play, exploring the degree to which that aspect serves as an explanation or cause for significant actions and outcomes. Consider, too, where relevant, the attitude of one or more key characters towards the supernatural, taking care to examine the consequences of that attitude.

7. Metadrama (either in the sense of a "play within the play" or of significant references to literature, drama, the arts, and/or criticism and key concepts such as representation) is an important element in a number of Shakespeare's plays, which often reflect on their own medium and on the arts more generally, especially in relation to other areas of life. Identify and examine the metadramatic element in one assigned play, taking care to consider how that element might help an audience understand some of the play's main events, characters, and themes.

8. Shakespeare's plays do not foreground Christian theology (or "pagan" religions like that of the Greeks or Romans, for that matter) -- they are not, that is, explicitly didactic or "teacherly." Still, religious concepts and beliefs often figure in significant ways in his dramas, manifesting themselves in characters' words and shaping their deeds, for better or for worse as the specific case may be. Consider the religious framework in one assigned play, and explain how it influences what characters say and do, how it informs their interpretation of their own and others' circumstances and actions, and how it might shape an audience's understanding of the play's events and themes.

9. At an appropriate point, we will at least briefly discuss Aristotle's classic definition and treatment of tragedy. In light of that discussion, consider one of the tragedies we are studying as an example of tragic drama. In what ways does the play adhere to the classic definition, and in what ways does Shakespeare more or less define and handle "tragedy" as he sees fit, in accordance with the exigencies of the action, characters, and thematic interests he is developing in your chosen play?

Formatting. Follow MLA (Modern Language Association) style -- this means, mainly, that you must observe the following formatting rules:

1. Observe 1-inch margins (MS Word uses 1 1/2"; change with Word's file menu Page Setup feature).

2. Double-space text and indented quotations alike -- i.e. don't single-space quotations.

3. Avoid extra paragraphing spaces or extra spaces anywhere (after title, etc.). Therefore, tab-indent the first line of regular paragraphs 1/2 inch rather than block-styling them, which would require extra spaces.

4. Indent long quotations of more than four lines from the left; there's no need to indent from the right.

5. Number your essay's pages in header at top right -- use Word's insert menu Page Numbers feature to do that. Then input your last name with Word's view menu "header and footer" feature -- the command "control/letter r" will right-justify the header text you type.

6. Include at top left on separate double-spaced lines your name, the instructor's name, bare course title, and date. Then add your centered title. A typical paper would begin like this:

Simpson 1

Bart Simpson

Professor Montgomery Burns

English 101

25 December 2010

Why Should I Study English if I'm Never Going to England?!

7. Introduce and cite sources properly within your essay. See my Grammar Guide for the relevant conventions.

8. Offer a "works cited" list on the last page of your document even if an anthology is your only text. Again, see Grammar Guide for the relevant conventions, or refer to a book every humanities major should have: The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 6th. edition. Ed. Joseph Gibaldi. New York: MLA, 2003.

Rough Drafts (Optional). If you give me a rough draft or some portion of one, I will read it carefully and offer substantive comments. With regard to stylistic matters, I have a detailed online Grammar Guide, portions of which I include as "autotexts" with the MS Word Track Changes feature as I go through a draft. I will not simply "fix" rough drafts since that discourages students from doing their own editing. Self-expression and the desire to say something important are good reasons to write, but they alone do not make a person a good writer -- that takes time and respect for the medium itself, including its formal conventions.

Research and "Works Cited" For undergraduates, research is optional -- the main thing is to attend closely to the assigned texts. If you like to do outside reading and work with theoretical approaches, that's good, but this assignment is not technically a research paper. Even if you don't incorporate outside research, you still need to include a separate Works Cited page at the end of the essay--that is because you will, of course, be citing at least one of the assigned texts. Use MLA guidelines for citing sources. As for graduates, your longer paper should incorporate at least some secondary material, but I leave the relative balance between primary and secondary material to your discretion. Libraries: Chapman, CSUF.

Additional Guides. I have written many guides to help students with composing, editing, and polishing their essays. Please look over some of this site's materials on writing -- see the Resources/Guides section of your course menu, and click on "Writing Guides" to view the list. Here are links to the main ones: MLA, Grammar, Deductive, Citing, Analyzing, and Editing.

Advance Draft Comments

Your essay doesn't need to offer exhaustive commentary about the work or author chosen, and it doesn't need to provide huge amounts of background information about history, the author's life, and so forth. Instead, examine your text/s on the specific things (problems, issues, themes, etc.) you want to write about, and be willing to grapple directly and in some detail with the actual language of your chosen work. Try to write a paper that leads your readers towards genuine insights based on a patient, well-structured analysis of particular passages (and flexible points of comparison, for comparative essays). If your essay makes a reader feel like re-reading all or some of the literary work in question, you will have done your job well.

1) Thesis presentation in your first paragraph

The paper should go well beyond summarizing, though a little summarizing may be necessary as context for quotations and (in your first paragraph) just to explain what kind of story you are dealing with. The last several sentences of your first paragraph should explain what specific, manageable section of the text you will write about and why you are going to write about it. The "why" part should be more specific than "I want to explore certain characters' actions and relationships, and later on I'll tell you what the point of doing that was." Your reader wants to know what you have already discovered and what you will, therefore, be explaining in detail later. That's deductive structure, as illustrated in the sample paper: here's my argument / now I'm citing and analyzing key passages to show how I arrived at it / now I am wrapping up the argument and reflecting on it.

Thesis Development. In the drafting stages of a deductive essay, the thesis in the first paragraph is often vague -- more like a general topic than a specific argument. In a deductive essay, one states claims at the outset and then explores them; however, insights tend to develop inductively. That is, what the writer wants to say emerges only gradually, and becomes sharpest towards the end of the paper. The most efficient way to sharpen your first paragraph is to look over what you write in the middle and conclusion of your essay, and tie it all together into a few sentences that will serve as your thesis. That way, you can turn an inductive rough draft into a deductive final draft, and avoid allowing initially vague claims to get the better of you: unless handled with care, ideas quickly become traps.

Avoiding Generalities. Do not begin your first paragraph with filler such as, "Throughout history, man has fallen in love and written poetry." That is an irrecoverable sign that the writer has little of substance to say. Also avoid literary appreciation filler such as "Ben Jonson's plays are immortal."

2) Argument structure and handling of quotations in the main essay

The aim here is to offer sustained analysis of substantive quotations for which you have provided adequate context, and a conclusion that develops logically from the middle section without simply repeating your thesis. Ideally, there should not be only extremely brief quotations; showcasing a few longer passages and staying with them improves emphasis and structure. In a comparative paper, it's usually best to deal with the texts in two solid blocks rather than to go back and forth between them several times.

3) Grammar and Style

Grammar and style. Key things are consistent verb tense use (present tense is usually best), active voice, and straightforward (not wordy or contorted) sentence structure. A Works Cited page should be included even if you only cite the assigned text/s, and MLA quotation formatting should be correct -- see the sample paper available in Writing Guides. Failure to proofread and edit carefully in the final stages is a major factor in poor grades.

More thoughts on style. Avoid vague introductory language or empty praise of the author in question. A statement like "Throughout history so-and-so has been considered a great author" is padding. Get rid of sentences that function only as warm-up for specific analysis, somewhat like filler. Read your paper out loud, and you will get rid of many filler phrases and awkward constructions. We make mistakes in everyday speech, but at least we don't say things like "objective consideration of contemporary phenomena necessitates the inevitable conclusion that success or failure in competitive activities exhibits no tendency to be commensurate with innate capacity."


If you earn a B+, an A-, or an A, that's great. The A range grades mean that I really didn't see major problems in your thesis, your handling of quotations and organization of the essay, or your grammar and style. I found your paper sophisticated and well written. If you earn a B+ or A-, that generally means your thesis was good but that the grammar and style issues kept the paper from being an outright "A." I have marked up a few pages of your essay to indicate any problems with grammar and style, and possibly with minor thesis/content issues if I found any.

If you get a B, that's good, too. A "B" is solid work, with some room for improvement both in terms of content (i.e. thesis presentation and inclusion/handling of quotations), and style/grammar. The paper markup should indicate some areas in need of work.

If you earn a B- or C+, that's no catastrophe, but you can do better. Invariably this range of grades means that grammar/style problems slowed me down when I was reading your paper, even if they didn't keep me from understanding the basic argument. Often additional problems were that the thesis remained somewhat general and that the paper didn't make its case mainly through analysis of specific quotations.

If you do not get at least a C, the grade means that I saw some serious problems with both content/organization and with grammar/style, or that you simply didn't meet the requirements for the paper -- i.e. you turned in a one-pager with no textual analysis, or some such thing.

An F grade usually stems from plagiarized content, whether in part or in entirety, which is also grounds for failure in the course. Sources must always be documented.


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